AS-SALAAMU ALAIKUM, WA REHMATUL LAAHI WA BARAKAATUH,
Wait for adhaan
AUZO BIL LAAHI MIN ASH SHAYTAANIR RAJEEM,
BISMIL LAAHIR RAHMAANIR RAHIM
AL HAMDU LILLAAHI RABBIL ‘ALAMEEN. WAS SALAATU WAS SALAAMU ‘ALAA ASHRAFIL MURSALEEN. SAYIDINAA WA NABI YENAA WA MOULANAA MUHAMMADIN WA’ALA AALEHEE WA AS HAABEHEE WASALLIM.
All praise is due to Alláh, the Lord of all the Worlds; may the greetings and peace be upon the best messenger, Prophet Muhammad (SAW), and upon his family and upon all of his companions.
AL-HAMDU LILLA HIL LAZI HADAANA LIHAAZA WAMA KUNNA LANAHTADIYA LAW’LA ANN HADAANA ALLAH. (You must expand this Arabic portion of Khutbah, depending on the month/season, e.g. Hajj, Ramadaan, etc.)
Praise is due to Allah,
Praise is due to Allah who guided us to the righteous path, and indeed we wouldn’t have attained this state of guidance without Him Allah,
English Part of the Khutbah:
IKHWATI FIL ISLAM, ASH-HAAB AL ILM, WA RUWAAD AL ILM, Brothers in Islam, Learned Colleagues and Scholars,
AS-SALAAMU ALAIKUM, WA REHMATUL LAAHI WA BARAKAATUH,
This is the second part of the Khutbah which deals with the Anthropological aspects mentioned in the Holy Quran about the “Principles of Human Growth and Development”, which are derived from the Qur’an and Hadith proving that the Human Life and its Development is a gradual process, as determined by ASWT.
We learned that today’s Sociology and Psychology is still backward and haven’t caught up with the Holy Quran wherein ASWT describes the whole concept of the Human Growth and Development, Ayaat by Ayaat.
We also learned in our last Khutbah that ASWT has told us that He created man in various progressive stages of growth and development. In other words, man’s life has been patterned in stages from conception to death. The stages through which man passes in his growth and development are not merely a matter of chance or accident. They were predesigned, predetermined, and graduated by ASWT Himself. We also covered those Ayaats in the Qur’an, wherein ASWT mentions these basic facts.
Now to continue this week, if the postnatal period is taken in its entirety, then Islamic scholars have divided this into four broad stages, and each stage is itself divided into short substages. Allah says:
Surah 16, Naml, or The Bee, Ayaat 70:
Translation: It is Allah who creates you and takes your souls at death; and of you there are some who are sent back to a feeble age, so that they know nothing after having known (much): for Allah is All-Knowing, All-Powerful.
In his commentary on this Ayaat, Gummi (1922-1992) says the following:
“Some Islamic scholars have said that man’s life (after birth) has four broad stages.
The first stage is the stage of continuous growth and development, which begins from 0 to 33 years (the end of youth and the age at which an individual attains full physical and intellectual maturity).
The second stage, from 33 to 40, is the stage of constancy in which increase in growth and development is hardly noticeable. The age of 40 is usually considered the stage at which both physical and intellectual ability reach maturity.
The third stage is the stage of mid- or proper adulthood (al-kuhulah). From 40 to 60 years man begins to decline physically and mentally though so subtly and steadily that it can hardly be noticed.
The last stage, from 60 to the end of life, is the stage of old age and decline (senescence). In this stage decline becomes more obvious and noticeable.”
Pattern of Human Growth and Development
According to the Qur’an, human growth and development follow one common pattern which is applicable to every human being. Despite individual differences this pattern applies to every person. The pattern is that every individual grows and develops from initial weakness to strength and then to weakness. In other words, growth and development follow a certain natural inevitable law of rise and fall. That is to say that when the individual gradually reaches the apex of his development, whether physical or cognitive, he then begins to decline gradually. The Qur’an is very precise about this:
Surah 30, Rūm, or The Roman Empire, Ayaat 54:
Translation: It is Allah Who created you in a state of (helpless) weakness, then gave (you) strength after weakness, then, after strength, gave (you weakness and a hoary head: He creates as He wills, and it is He Who has all knowledge and power.
It needs to be emphasized here that this single pattern mentioned in this principle and as demonstrated in this Ayaat is applicable to all human beings. We are all created in a state of weakness. This refers to the early stage of our creation right inside the wombs and up to delivery. We are weak at these early stages both physically and mentally. This weakness at the onset of our life is also mentioned in another place in the Qur’an but with specific reference to mental weaknesses:
Surah 16, Naml, or The Bee, Ayaat 78:
Translation: It is He Who brought you forth from the wombs of your mothers when ye knew nothing; and He gave you hearing and sight and intelligence and affections: that ye may give thanks (to Allah).
Surah 46: Al Qaaf, or Winding Sand-tracts, Ayaat 15:
Translation: We have enjoined on man kindness to his parents: In pain did his mother bear him, and in pain did she give him birth. The carrying of the (child) to his weaning is (a period of) thirty months. At length, when he reaches the age of full strength and attains forty years, he says, ‘O my Lord! Grant me that I may be grateful for Thy favour which Thou has bestowed upon me, and upon both my parents, and that I may work righteousness such as Thou mayest approve; and be gracious to me in my issue. Truly have I turned to Thee and truly do I bow (to Thee) in Islam.’
In several other Ayaats this single and common pattern of early weakness that first characterizes every person’s life and then strength in later development is also clearly indicated.
The necessary analogical deduction that can be made from this Ayaat is that each person’s life begins in weakness, gradually attains strength, and then gradually declines, just as the first Ayaat under this principle clearly states. The decline is the beginning of a second dimension of weakness that characterizes human life at the end of one’s life. And this has also been stated in this Ayaat and several others. This pattern is certainly common to all human beings as it is witnessed in our life experiences.
This principle, it should be noted, does not eliminate the fact of individual differences. What is actually meant is that, although this pattern is applicable to all humans, there are always a number of differences among individuals in terms of specific developmental variables and processes. For the purpose of illustration, let us assume that two identical things are born at the same moment. This principle applies to both of them in the sense that they are both helpless, weak, miniature human beings, and both gradually begin to grow and develop until both attain full strength. However, it may be noticed that one may be dark in complexion while another may be light. Again, while one may be fat, the other may be slim. These are some forms of individual differences. They do not however, like all other forms, eliminate the fact of the common pattern of development represented by this principle, just as the principle itself does not wipe away this very fact of individual differences. A more detailed discussion on individual differences in development comes later in the later Khutbah.
Human Development Is a Cumulative and Simultaneous Process
If all the Ayaats of the Qur’an that talk about human development in its various stages are taken together, synthesized, and analyzed, it will be seen that the Qur’an had postulated that human development is cumulative in nature. That is to say, any new development acquired or attained by the individual adds up to the already existing one. In this way, development builds one aspect upon another up to the fullest stage. The Qur’an also teaches us that human development is a simultaneously interwoven process. This means that all the aspects of development-physical, mental, social, emotional, moral-are inseparable. Each one reinforces the other. This means that one aspect of development does not wait until another develops to its fullest before it commences. The physical and mental developments of a person for example go together with his social, emotional, and moral development. At each stage, all these aspects increase in growth and maturation proportionally and consecutively, hence, the simultaneous nature of development. Many of the Ayaats that talk about development refer to all its aspects either explicity or implicity. But the physical and cognitive aspects of it are especially explicity tied to each other in several Ayaats of the Qur’an. This is very clear in several Ayaats quoted earlier. The Ayaat in which Allah describes the two broad stages at the same time contains not only mention of physical development but also that of mental development. The same thing applies to the Ayaats in which He mentions, “attainment of full strength” in development and growth. Undoubtedly, the full strength so attained is not only restricted to physical strength but also necessarily includes all the other aspects of development. This is all the more obvious in the Ayaats where Allah refers to giving orphans their wealth when they attain “full strength.” It certainly means both physical and mental development. While physical development as implied in the Ayaat is indisputably more obvious from the word “strength” which immediately signifies physical stature and posture, the mental component is definitely included as it is clearly alluded to by another Ayaat of the Qur’an:
Surah 4, Nisāa, or The Women, Ayaat 6:
Translation: Make trial of orphans until they reach the age of marriage; if then ye find sound judgment in them, release their property to them; but consume it not wastefully, nor in haste against their growing up. If the guardian is well-off, Let him claim no remuneration, but if he is poor, let him have for himself what is just and reasonable. When ye release their property to them, take witnesses in their presence: But all-sufficient is Allah in taking account.
The mention of age of marriage is a direct reference to physical maturity and growth while sound judgement directly means mental maturity. The fact of the simultaneous nature of growth and development in human life is thus confirmed.
However, the Qur’an also alludes to the fact that some aspects may develop faster than others, thus creating intra-individual differences in development. For example, the individual’s physical development may be faster than his mental development or vice versa. The Qur’an therefore confirms the factor of mental retardation. In this situation, the individual may grow and develop physically but may not grow and develop at the same rate mentally. Allah alludes to this in the following Ayaat where He prescribes recording debt contracts:
Surah 2 Baqara, or the Heifer, Ayaat 282: (In our discussion and in our context, we are interested in the words highlighted in red within this long Ayaat.)
Translation: O ye who believe! When ye deal with each other, in transactions involving future obligations in a fixed period of time, reduce them to writing Let a scribe write down faithfully as between the parties: let not the scribe refuse to write: as Allah Has taught him, so let him write. Let him who incurs the liability dictate, but let him fear His Lord Allah, and not diminish aught of what he owes. If the party liable is mentally deficient, or weak, or unable Himself to dictate, Let his guardian dictate faithfully, and get two witnesses, out of your own men, and if there are not two men, then a man and two women, such as ye choose, for witnesses, so that if one of them errs, the other can remind her. The witnesses should not refuse when they are called on (For evidence). Disdain not to reduce to writing (your contract) for a future period, whether it be small or big: it is juster in the sight of Allah, More suitable as evidence, and more convenient to prevent doubts among yourselves but if it be a transaction which ye carry out on the spot among yourselves, there is no blame on you if ye reduce it not to writing. But take witness whenever ye make a commercial contract; and let neither scribe nor witness suffer harm. If ye do (such harm), it would be wickedness in you. So fear Allah. For it is Good that teaches you. And Allah is well acquainted with all things. If ye are on a journey, and cannot find a scribe, a pledge with possession (may serve the purpose). And if one of you deposits a thing on trust with another, let the trustee (faithfully) discharge his trust, and let him Fear his Lord conceal not evidence; for whoever conceals it,–his heart is tainted with sin. And Allah knoweth all that ye do.
Several other Ayaats mention these cases of abnormal mental development. Another form of abnormal development has also been mentioned in another Ayaat. This is abnormal language development, which causes speech impairment. In a parabolic and euphemistic description of the disbeliever, this factor is denoted, as it appears in the Ayaat:
Surah 16: Naml, or The Bee, Ayaat 76:
Translation: Allah sets forth (another) Parable of two men: one of them dumb, with no power of any sort; a wearisome burden is he to his master; whichever way he directs him, he brings no good: is such a man equal with one who commands Justice, and is on a Straight Way?
As you can see we can extract psychological facts from the Qur’an. This means that it is the apparent significations and connotations of the Ayaats that are taken into consideration, not necessarily the specific contingencies or instances upon which the Ayaats were revealed. And this is an accepted principle in ‘Ilmul-Usul.
These Ayaats and several others do confirm that abnormality affects some aspects of a person’s development, just as it can affect it in its entirety.
Human Life (Growth and Development) Transcends Earthly Phenomenal Existence whereas all the theories of development in modern developmental psychology are confined only to this earthly (temporal) life, the Qur’an projects human life beyond this life. The Qur’an considers the present life as the foundation of another life that is permanent and everlasting. Man is going to be transformed into a different form of life whose growth and development are transcendental and divine. Such growth and development, however, may be either in endless bliss or torment. This is why in many of the Ayaats where ASWT mentions the stages of human development, He links them directly with the life after death. It shall be a continuation of life in some sorts. For example, in Surat al-Mu’minun Allah enumerates the stages of human development in this earthly life. He follows the preceding Ayaats with a mention of the next life:
Surah 23: Mū-minūn, or The Believers, Ayaat 12 – 16:
Translation: Man We did create from a quintessence (of clay);
Translation: Then We placed him as (a drop of) sperm in a place of rest, firmly fixed;
Translation: Then We made the sperm into a clot of congealed blood; then of that clot We made a (foetus) lump; then we made out of that lump bones and clothed the bones with flesh; then we developed out of it another creature. So blessed be Allah, the best to create!
Translation: After that, at length ye will die;
Translation: Again, on the Day of Judgment, will ye be raised up.
Therefore, it is clear that for a comprehensive study of man, this aspect of divine life after death should be incorporated. This is because the fear of death and what happens beyond it is inherent in every human being and it has a lot of bearing on man’s psychological dispositions and development. Unless this is done, our knowledge about the nature of man will continue to remain primitive and partial.
Due to time constraints, we will stop here and IA, continue the last phase of the Khutbah next time.
Conclusion of the First Part of the Khutbah:
NAD’OO ALLAHA AN YAGHFIR LANA ZUNUBAKUM”
Meaning: We make Duas to ASWT, so that he will accept all our Ibadat & forgive our sins.
WA AAKHERO DAA’ WAANA ANIL HAMDO LIL LAAHEY RABBIL AALAMEEN
FORMAL ARABIC KHUTBA WILL BE RECITED AT THIS JUNCTURE.
Globally Standardized Conclusion:
ALLAHUMMAGH FIR LIL’ MUSLIMEENA WAL MUSLIMAAT
WAL MOAMINEENA WAL MOUMINAAT…
AL-AHYAA’EE MINHUM WAL AMWAAT…
INNAKAA SAMEE’UN MUJIBUD DA’WAAT
Ya Allah, forgive all our Muslim men and women,
Forgive the believing men and women,
Those who are alive and those who died,
You are indeed the One who listens and accepts all supplications.
RABBANA LAA TUZIGH QULOOBANAA, BA’DA ITH HADAY TANAA WAHAB LANAA MILLA DUNKA RAHMA. INNAKAA ANTAL WAH-HAAB.
O Allah, do not let our hearts deviate from the Truth now that we have been guided , but grant us Mercy from Your very Presence, for You are the Grantor of bounties without measure.
RABBI JA’ALNI MUQEEMUS SALAATI, WAMIN DUR-RIY-YATI, RABBANAA WATA QABBAL DU’AAH.
Ya Rabb, help us to perfect our salaat, and of our descendants, Our Lord, accept the duas of all these brothers.
RABBIGH FIRLEE WALI WAALI DAYYA, WALIL MU’MINEENA YAWMA YAQOOMUL HISAAB.
My Lord, forgive us, and our parents, and all Believers until the Yawm al Qiyamah.
Ya Allah, accept our Ibadat and forgive us.
Ya Rabb, have mercy on us. Help us obey you and praise you.
Ya Allah, we make dua so please lead us to prosperity and growth, to triumph and solidarity, to unity and wealth beyond our imagination.
Ya Allah, we beg for your MAGFIRATAK, and ask you for success, health and wealth for all the brothers who are present here and now in this blessed room.
Ya Rabb, increase our love that binds us together now, and in the future to come.
With regards to their dear beloved ones who have passed away, Ya Rabb, may you grant them a place in Jannatul Firdaus. May you forgive all their KHATAYAA, KABEERA WA SAGHEERAH. May you fill their Qabr with your holy noor and light. Ya Rabb, may you also save us from ADHAAB AL QABR. Ya Allah, grant their rooh, eternal peace, AR RAAHA AL ABDIYYAA on the YAWM AL HISAAB.
Ya Allah, accept all our duas, fulfil all our righteous wishes, fulfil our dreams,.
Ya Allah, may your rehma and safety encompass all our families, wherever they may be.
Ya Allah, grant these brothers who are present, here and now, SABR that is YUHIB HUM AS SABR.
Ya Allah, make the Prophet Muhammad (SAW) intercede or YASHFAAH on our behalf on YAWM A QIYAAMAH.
Globally Standardized Conclusion:
IBAA DAL LAAH:
IN NAL LAAHA YA’A MURU BIL ADLI WAL IHSAN
WA EE TA’EE ZIL QURBAA WA YANHAA ANIL FAHSHAA’EE WAL MUNKAREE WAL BAGH’YI
YA EE ZUKUM LA AL LAKUM TAZAK KAROON.
FAZ KU ROONI AZ KUR KUM WAS KU RU LI WA LA TAK FURUN.
Then you conclude by saying to the mu’azzin:
WA AA QIMUS SALAAH